In my post Move your IDE to the cloud: introduction to GitHub Codespaces I was bullish about moving my local development environment to the cloud. During the GitHub Codespaces beta, I was able to run VS Code instances (referred to as workspaces) in the cloud as my primary development environment for several months. Even though my experience with cloud workspaces was positive, I initially switched back to local development. Using cloud workspaces felt like local development (which is a significant achievement) but did not eliminate the pain points of local development.
Moving workspaces to the cloud is not enough
In local development, you usually clone a repository once. When working on different branches, you switch context by switching branches and updating dependencies. When you work on multiple issues in parallel, switching between branches causes a lot of friction. Every time you switch branches, you need to update your dependencies, a pain point for local development.
The early Codespaces beta had a limit of two workspaces. When switching between projects, I deleted and created workspaces frequently to work around the limited number of workspaces. Every new workspace came with a wait time until it was ready to use. And once a workspace was up and running, I used it for multiple tasks, just like a local workspace, frequently switching branches and updating dependencies. The perceived added value of a cloud workspace was marginal.
Making workspaces disposable
Gitpod is an alternative to Codespaces and a comparatively small player in this field, and their product precedes Codespaces. Gitpod turns cloud workspaces into a disposable commodity with their one workspace per task approach. This is a radical departure from one workspace for many tasks, which is the default for local development.
With Gitpod’s approach, you can be wasteful with workspaces. You create a new, fresh cloud workspace
for every issue you work on and every pull request you review. The technical prerequisite is
configuring your workspace as code and adding the configuration to your repository. This is done
.gitpod.yml file, which contains information such
- init task (e.g., run
- install project-specific VS Code extensions,
- expose ports and
- configure environment variables.
Once your workspace is up and running, you are ready to code. There is no need to install dependencies (if you let Gitpod install them for you during the init task). You start coding in no time, and once you have created a pull request, you dispose of your workspace. Create a new workspace if you need to make changes after a pull request review.
Sounds good in theory. But in practice, it can take longer to create a workspace if your init task
takes long. A command like
npm install may run faster in the cloud, but probably not fast enough
to make the wait for your new workspace feel short. No developer will put up with long wait times in
How to make disposable workspaces viable
Configuring a workspace in code is not a unique feature of Gitpod, and Codespaces can do the same with a different configuration syntax. GitHub has also removed the two workspaces limit for Codespaces, which addresses the pain points I described earlier. But what sets Gitpod apart are two features that make creating new workspaces fast and easy:
- Prebuilds: Instead of running the init task for a workspace when you launch a new workspace, Gitpod runs it whenever you push to your repository (you have complete control over when, e.g., for every push to the main branch and every pull request). Chances are that the init task has been completed by the time you want to launch a new workspace, and workspace initialization feels instant.
- Browser extension: Gitpod’s browser extension turns repository pages of [GitHub, GitLab, and Bitbucket into a dashboard from which you can conveniently launch new workspaces. Let’s say you want to work on an issue. You navigate to the issue page, assign the issue to yourself and then launch a workspace. The workspace launches with an issue branch created and is up and running almost instantly. This is possible because of a prebuild for the commit from which the issue branch was branched off. There is no need to create a new branch or update dependencies in your new workspace; it is all done for you.
Combining prebuilds and the browser extension and adopting a one task per workspace mindset enables a great development workflow that treats workspaces as disposable commodities. They can be created and disposed of with minimal overhead. You can have multiple workspaces for different tasks for the same repository. Rather than switching between branches, you switch between workspaces.
I want to point out that GitHub Codespaces is going in the same direction as Gitpod, but [it currently does not support prebuilds and cannot create workspaces from issues and pull requests on a repository’s GitHub page. Another downside of Codespaces is that it does not support GitHub’s competitors, GitLab and Bitbucket.
Should individual developers use Gitpod or Codespaces?
Gitpod has a free plan which includes 50 hours per month, which is good enough for occasional side projects but nowhere near what you need when using Gitpod full-time. In this case, you have to consider a paid plan. Personal accounts do not have to pay for GitHub Codespaces usage, but organization and enterprise accounts must pay. This triggers the question of whether you want to pay for cloud workspaces when you can do unlimited local development on your laptop.
Gitpod and Codespaces make it possible to develop inside a browser on Chromebooks, iPads, and pretty much any device that runs a modern browser. This is a big deal, but it comes with a price tag. On the other hand, there is nothing wrong with local development, but you are missing out on a fantastic new workflow that you cannot replicate locally.
Last but not least, I would also like to point out that Gitpod and Codespaces can be affected by outages. I wrote a post on How to brace for a GitHub Codespaces outage in which I discuss contingencies when you develop in the cloud. But since outages are not that frequent (see Gitpod Status and GitHub Status), I would not worry too much about them.